Historicizing Sexual Symbols 17 Our volume thus begins with a study of the sexualization of witches, and the emergence of androgyny as an ideological concern in the early modern period. French repudiations of the Italian association with male homosexual sodomy recurred as the Renaissance settled in. Despairing over their lost wholeness, the humans started to die off, so Zeus moved their genitals around to the front and now the search for completion—for the lost half—could begin. The speech by Aristophanes rests on the premise that people feel complete when in love. But the story did not end there. Yale University Press,
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In other words, are the souls of lovers linked by God or can a lover simply find beauty in any soul? He asked for the normal punishment, death by stran- gulation and burning at the stake. Thanks are extended to Chantal Barry, who translated material for this chapter. The figure of Marianne rears her head repeatedly in the span of topics covered in this work, though there are no chapters specifically focused on her, because this area in the study of French gendered nationalism has already been extensively historicized. During this time, multiple images of Bernhardt as Joan of Arc began appearing on cabinet cards, photographs, and posters—produced in a manner, I argue, designed to quell objections to the forty-two-year- old divorcee in the role of the pious French maiden.
Are those errors a function of the desire of unlike halves—that is, men and women? I am interested in the figure of the androgyne as a cultural, literary construct, rather than people who were termed androgynes or hermaph- rodites or who might now be termed intersexed. The sans-culottes, small-time artisans of the Parisian revolu- tionary sections and of the revolutionary committees, adopted pantalons, a red bonnet, a rosette, and the red, short-skirted coat of the Marseille sections known as the carmagnole as their uniform. The asymmetry is obvious: There were also changes in ways of dressing linked to political events in other countries:
Comparisons allow us to discern when distinct shifts in representation and concern occurred. Apparently a woman could suffice to put everything back to normal without the need for any magical inter- vention. Perhaps, too, it is easier to pretend that a state truly represents both men and women if the nation itself is feminized even as the govern- ment is elected through male suffrage alone, as governments in most European states were up until the early twentieth century, and as France was up until Marguerite de Navarre used the figure in several ways within her corpus. A very interesting case brought to court between and tells the story of a wealthy peasant who was accused of being a rebel against authority, a blasphemer, a drunkard, a violent thief, and, in addition, an incestuous witch. The male and female halves could combine to reproduce and the male-male couples could enjoy intercourse. Sexual- ized and gendered patterns of othering were established in prenational times, providing the substrate for such the practices in later nationalist tropes.